ARP - Address Resolution Protocol

ARP resolves IP addresses to hardware addresses. Each network adapter has a unique hardware address
(commonly referred to as a MAC address) which it uses for identification on the network.

When there is a need to locate a computer/peripheral on the TCP/IP network, ARP first checks its local
cache to see if it contains the hardware address for the computer/peripheral it is trying to connect to.
If it the address is not in the ARP cache, ARP broadcasts a message to the known IP address for its
hardware address.

The computer it is trying to locate will receive the broadcast and send a reply with its IP and
hardware addresses.

Once the hardware address has been attained, ARP stores the resolved IP and hardware addresses in
cache, then proceeds with communication.

The ARP cache can be viewed and edited using the ARP.EXE utility.